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snprintf.c

/*
 build a test version with
   gcc -g -DDRIVER -I../.. -I../../include -o test-snprintf snprintf.c fmtu*long.o
*/
 
/*
   Unix snprintf implementation.
   derived from inetutils/libinetutils/snprintf.c Version 1.1

   Copyright (C) 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

   This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
   it under the terms of the GNU General License as published by
   the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
   (at your option) any later version.
   
   This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
   GNU General License for more details.
   
   You should have received a copy of the GNU General License
   along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
   Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
   
   Revision History:

   1.1:
      *  added changes from Miles Bader
      *  corrected a bug with %f
      *  added support for %#g
      *  added more comments :-)
   1.0:
      *  supporting must ANSI syntaxic_sugars
   0.0:
      *  support %s %c %d

 THANKS(for the patches and ideas):
     Miles Bader
     Cyrille Rustom
     Jacek Slabocewiz
     Mike Parker(mouse)

*/

/*
 * Currently doesn't handle (and bash/readline doesn't use):
 *    *M$ width, precision specifications
 *    %N$ numbered argument conversions
 *    inf, nan floating values imperfect (if isinf(), isnan() not in libc)
 *    support for `F' is imperfect, since underlying printf may not handle it
 */

#define FLOATING_POINT

#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#  include <config.h>
#endif

#if defined(DRIVER) && !defined(HAVE_CONFIG_H)
#define HAVE_LONG_LONG
#define HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE
#ifdef __linux__
#define HAVE_PRINTF_A_FORMAT
#endif
#define HAVE_ISINF_IN_LIBC
#define PREFER_STDARG
#define HAVE_STRINGIZE
#define HAVE_LIMITS_H
#define HAVE_STDDEF_H
#define HAVE_LOCALE_H
#define intmax_t long
#endif

#if !defined (HAVE_SNPRINTF) || !defined (HAVE_ASPRINTF)

#include <bashtypes.h>

#if defined(PREFER_STDARG)
#  include <stdarg.h>
#else
#  include <varargs.h>
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_LIMITS_H
#  include <limits.h>
#endif
#include <bashansi.h>
#ifdef HAVE_STDDEF_H
#  include <stddef.h>
#endif
#include <chartypes.h>

#ifdef HAVE_STDINT_H
#  include <stdint.h>
#endif

#ifdef FLOATING_POINT
#  include <float.h>    /* for manifest constants */
#  include <stdio.h>    /* for sprintf */
#endif

#include <typemax.h>

#ifdef HAVE_LOCALE_H
#  include <locale.h>
#endif

#include "stdc.h"
#include <shmbutil.h>

#ifndef DRIVER
#  include "shell.h"
#else
#  define FL_PREFIX     0x01    /* add 0x, 0X, or 0 prefix as appropriate */
#  define FL_ADDBASE    0x02    /* add base# prefix to converted value */
#  define FL_HEXUPPER   0x04    /* use uppercase when converting to hex */
#  define FL_UNSIGNED   0x08    /* don't add any sign */
extern char *fmtulong __P((unsigned long int, int, char *, size_t, int));
extern char *fmtullong __P((unsigned long long int, int, char *, size_t, int));
#endif

#ifndef FREE
#  define FREE(x) if (x) free (x)
#endif

/* Bound on length of the string representing an integer value of type T.
   Subtract one for the sign bit if T is signed;
   302 / 1000 is log10 (2) rounded up;
   add one for integer division truncation;
   add one more for a minus sign if t is signed.  */
#define INT_STRLEN_BOUND(t) \
  ((sizeof (t) * CHAR_BIT - TYPE_SIGNED (t)) * 302 / 1000 \
     + 1 + TYPE_SIGNED (t))

/* conversion flags */
#define PF_ALTFORM      0x00001           /* # */
#define PF_HEXPREFIX    0x00002           /* 0[Xx] */
#define PF_LADJUST      0x00004           /* - */
#define PF_ZEROPAD      0x00008           /* 0 */
#define PF_PLUS         0x00010           /* + */
#define PF_SPACE  0x00020           /* ' ' */
#define PF_THOUSANDS    0x00040           /* ' */

#define PF_DOT          0x00080           /* `.precision' */
#define PF_STAR_P 0x00100           /* `*' after precision */
#define PF_STAR_W 0x00200           /* `*' before or without precision */

/* length modifiers */
#define PF_SIGNEDCHAR   0x00400           /* hh */
#define PF_SHORTINT     0x00800           /* h */
#define PF_LONGINT      0x01000           /* l */
#define PF_LONGLONG     0x02000           /* ll */
#define PF_LONGDBL      0x04000           /* L */
#define PF_INTMAX_T     0x08000           /* j */
#define PF_SIZE_T 0x10000           /* z */
#define PF_PTRDIFF_T    0x20000           /* t */

#define PF_ALLOCBUF     0x40000           /* for asprintf, vasprintf */

#define PFM_SN          0x01        /* snprintf, vsnprintf */
#define PFM_AS          0x02        /* asprintf, vasprintf */

#define ASBUFSIZE 128

#define x_digs    "0123456789abcdef"
#define X_digs    "0123456789ABCDEF"

static char intbuf[INT_STRLEN_BOUND(unsigned long) + 1];

static int decpoint;
static int thoussep;
static char *grouping;

/* 
 * For the FLOATING POINT FORMAT :
 *  the challenge was finding a way to
 *  manipulate the Real numbers without having
 *  to resort to mathematical function(it
 *  would require to link with -lm) and not
 *  going down to the bit pattern(not portable)
 *
 *  so a number, a real is:

      real = integral + fraction

      integral = ... + a(2)*10^2 + a(1)*10^1 + a(0)*10^0
      fraction = b(1)*10^-1 + b(2)*10^-2 + ...

      where:
       0 <= a(i) => 9 
       0 <= b(i) => 9 
 
    from then it was simple math
 */

/*
 * size of the buffer for the integral part
 * and the fraction part 
 */
#define MAX_INT  99 + 1 /* 1 for the null */
#define MAX_FRACT 307 + 1

/* 
 * These functions use static buffers to store the results,
 * and so are not reentrant
 */
#define itoa(n) fmtulong(n, 10, intbuf, sizeof(intbuf), 0);
#define dtoa(n, p, f) numtoa(n, 10, p, f)

#define SWAP_INT(a,b) {int t; t = (a); (a) = (b); (b) = t;}

#define GETARG(type)    (va_arg(args, type))

/* Macros that do proper sign extension and handle length modifiers.  Used
   for the integer conversion specifiers. */
#define GETSIGNED(p) \
  (((p)->flags & PF_LONGINT) \
      ? GETARG (long) \
      : (((p)->flags & PF_SHORTINT) ? (long)(short)GETARG (int) \
                              : (long)GETARG (int)))

#define GETUNSIGNED(p) \
  (((p)->flags & PF_LONGINT) \
      ? GETARG (unsigned long) \
      : (((p)->flags & PF_SHORTINT) ? (unsigned long)(unsigned short)GETARG (int) \
                              : (unsigned long)GETARG (unsigned int)))


#ifdef HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE
#define GETLDOUBLE(p) GETARG (long double)
#endif
#define GETDOUBLE(p) GETARG (double)

#define SET_SIZE_FLAGS(p, type) \
  if (sizeof (type) > sizeof (int)) \
    (p)->flags |= PF_LONGINT; \
  if (sizeof (type) > sizeof (long)) \
    (p)->flags |= PF_LONGLONG;

/* this struct holds everything we need */
struct DATA
{
  int length;
  char *base;           /* needed for [v]asprintf */
  char *holder;
  int counter;
  const char *pf;

/* FLAGS */
  int flags;
  int justify;
  int width, precision;
  char pad;
};

/* the floating point stuff */
#ifdef FLOATING_POINT
static double pow_10 __P((int));
static int log_10 __P((double));
static double integral __P((double, double *));
static char *numtoa __P((double, int, int, char **));
#endif

static void init_data __P((struct DATA *, char *, size_t, const char *, int));
static void init_conv_flag __P((struct DATA *));

/* for the format */
#ifdef FLOATING_POINT
static void floating __P((struct DATA *, double));
static void exponent __P((struct DATA *, double));
#endif
static void number __P((struct DATA *, unsigned long, int));
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
static void lnumber __P((struct DATA *, unsigned long long, int));
#endif
static void pointer __P((struct DATA *, unsigned long));
static void strings __P((struct DATA *, char *));

#ifdef FLOATING_POINT
#  define FALLBACK_FMTSIZE    32
#  define FALLBACK_BASE       4096
#  define LFALLBACK_BASE      5120
#  ifdef HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE
static void ldfallback __P((struct DATA *, const char *, const char *, long double));
#  endif
static void dfallback __P((struct DATA *, const char *, const char *, double));
#endif

static char *groupnum __P((char *));

#ifdef DRIVER
static void memory_error_and_abort ();
static void *xmalloc __P((size_t));
static void *xrealloc __P((void *, size_t));
static void xfree __P((void *));
#else
#  include <xmalloc.h>
#endif

/* those are defines specific to snprintf to hopefully
 * make the code clearer :-)
 */
#define RIGHT 1
#define LEFT  0
#define NOT_FOUND -1
#define FOUND 1
#define MAX_FIELD 15

/* round off to the precision */
#define ROUND(d, p) \
          (d < 0.) ? \
           d - pow_10(-(p)->precision) * 0.5 : \
           d + pow_10(-(p)->precision) * 0.5

/* set default precision */
#define DEF_PREC(p) \
          if ((p)->precision == NOT_FOUND) \
            (p)->precision = 6

/* put a char.  increment the number of chars written even if we've exceeded
   the vsnprintf/snprintf buffer size (for the return value) */
#define PUT_CHAR(c, p) \
      do \
        { \
          if (((p)->flags & PF_ALLOCBUF) && ((p)->counter >= (p)->length - 1)) \
            { \
            (p)->length += ASBUFSIZE; \
            (p)->base = (char *)xrealloc((p)->base, (p)->length); \
            (p)->holder = (p)->base + (p)->counter; /* in case reallocated */ \
            } \
          if ((p)->counter < (p)->length) \
            *(p)->holder++ = (c); \
          (p)->counter++; \
        } \
      while (0)

/* Output a string.  P->WIDTH has already been adjusted for padding. */
#define PUT_STRING(string, len, p) \
      do \
        { \
          PAD_RIGHT (p); \
          while ((len)-- > 0) \
            { \
            PUT_CHAR (*(string), (p)); \
            (string)++; \
            } \
          PAD_LEFT (p); \
        } \
      while (0)

#define PUT_PLUS(d, p, zero) \
          if ((d) > zero && (p)->justify == RIGHT) \
            PUT_CHAR('+', p)

#define PUT_SPACE(d, p, zero) \
          if (((p)->flags & PF_SPACE) && (d) > zero) \
            PUT_CHAR(' ', p)

/* pad right */ 
#define PAD_RIGHT(p) \
          if ((p)->width > 0 && (p)->justify != LEFT) \
            for (; (p)->width > 0; (p)->width--) \
             PUT_CHAR((p)->pad, p)

/* pad left */
#define PAD_LEFT(p) \
          if ((p)->width > 0 && (p)->justify == LEFT) \
            for (; (p)->width > 0; (p)->width--) \
             PUT_CHAR((p)->pad, p)

/* if width and prec. in the args */
#define STAR_ARGS(p) \
          if ((p)->flags & PF_STAR_W) \
            (p)->width = GETARG (int); \
          if ((p)->flags & PF_STAR_P) \
            (p)->precision = GETARG (int)

#if defined (HAVE_LOCALE_H)
#  define GETLOCALEDATA(d, t, g) \
      do \
      { \
        struct lconv *lv; \
        if ((d) == 0) { \
        (d) = '.'; (t) = -1; (g) = 0; /* defaults */ \
        lv = localeconv(); \
        if (lv) \
          { \
            if (lv->decimal_point && lv->decimal_point[0]) \
              (d) = lv->decimal_point[0]; \
            if (lv->thousands_sep && lv->thousands_sep[0]) \
              (t) = lv->thousands_sep[0]; \
            (g) = lv->grouping ? lv->grouping : ""; \
            if (*(g) == '\0' || *(g) == CHAR_MAX || (t) == -1) (g) = 0; \
          } \
        } \
      } \
      while (0);
#else
#  define GETLOCALEDATA(d, t, g) \
      ( (d) = '.', (t) = ',', g = "\003" )
#endif

#ifdef FLOATING_POINT
/*
 * Find the nth power of 10
 */
static double
pow_10(n)
     int n;
{ 
  double P;

  /* handle common cases with fast switch statement. */
  switch (n)
    {
    case -3:      return .001;
    case -2:      return .01;
    case -1:      return .1;
    case 0: return 1.;
    case 1: return 10.;
    case 2: return 100.;
    case 3: return 1000.;
    }

  if (n < 0)
    {
      P = .0001;
      for (n += 4; n < 0; n++)
      P /= 10.;
    }
  else
    {
      P = 10000.;
      for (n -= 4; n > 0; n--)
      P *= 10.;
    }

  return P;
}

/*
 * Find the integral part of the log in base 10 
 * Note: this not a real log10()
       I just need and approximation(integerpart) of x in:
        10^x ~= r
 * log_10(200) = 2;
 * log_10(250) = 2;
 */
static int
log_10(r)
     double r;
{ 
  int i = 0;
  double result = 1.;

  if (r < 0.)
    r = -r;

  if (r < 1.)
    {
      while (result >= r)
      {
        result /= 10.;
        i++;
      }
      return (-i);
    }
  else
    {
      while (result <= r)
      {
        result *= 10.;
        i++;
      }
      return (i - 1);
    }
}

/*
 * This function return the fraction part of a double
 * and set in ip the integral part.
 * In many ways it resemble the modf() found on most Un*x
 */
static double
integral(real, ip)
     double real;
     double *ip;
{ 
  int j;
  double i, s, p;
  double real_integral = 0.;

  /* take care of the obvious */
  /* equal to zero ? */
  if (real == 0.)
    {
      *ip = 0.;
      return (0.);
    }

  /* negative number ? */
  if (real < 0.)
    real = -real;

  /* a fraction ? */
  if ( real < 1.)
    {
      *ip = 0.;
      return real;
    }

  /* the real work :-) */
  for (j = log_10(real); j >= 0; j--)
    {
      p = pow_10(j);
      s = (real - real_integral)/p;
      i = 0.;
      while (i + 1. <= s)
      i++;
      real_integral += i*p;
    }
  *ip = real_integral;
  return (real - real_integral);
}

#define PRECISION 1.e-6
/* 
 * return an ascii representation of the integral part of the number
 * and set fract to be an ascii representation of the fraction part
 * the container for the fraction and the integral part or staticly
 * declare with fix size 
 */
static char *
numtoa(number, base, precision, fract)
     double number;
     int base, precision;
     char **fract;
{
  register int i, j;
  double ip, fp; /* integer and fraction part */
  double fraction;
  int digits = MAX_INT - 1;
  static char integral_part[MAX_INT];
  static char fraction_part[MAX_FRACT];
  double sign;
  int ch;

  /* taking care of the obvious case: 0.0 */
  if (number == 0.)
    { 
      integral_part[0] = '0';
      integral_part[1] = '\0';
      fraction_part[0] = '0';
      fraction_part[1] = '\0';
      if (fract)
      *fract = fraction_part;
      return integral_part;
    }

  /* for negative numbers */
  if ((sign = number) < 0.)
    {
      number = -number;
      digits--; /* sign consume one digit */
    }

  fraction = integral(number, &ip);
  number = ip;

  /* do the integral part */
  if (ip == 0.)
    {
      integral_part[0] = '0';
      i = 1;
    }
  else
    {
      for ( i = 0; i < digits && number != 0.; ++i)
      {
        number /= base;
        fp = integral(number, &ip);
        ch = (int)((fp + PRECISION)*base); /* force to round */
        integral_part[i] = (ch <= 9) ? ch + '0' : ch + 'a' - 10;
        if (! ISXDIGIT((unsigned char)integral_part[i]))
          break;  /* bail out overflow !! */
        number = ip;
       }
    }
     
  /* Oh No !! out of bound, ho well fill it up ! */
  if (number != 0.)
    for (i = 0; i < digits; ++i)
      integral_part[i] = '9';

  /* put the sign ? */
  if (sign < 0.)
    integral_part[i++] = '-';

  integral_part[i] = '\0';

  /* reverse every thing */
  for ( i--, j = 0; j < i; j++, i--)
    SWAP_INT(integral_part[i], integral_part[j]);  

  /* the fractional part */
  for (i=0, fp=fraction; precision > 0 && i < MAX_FRACT ; i++, precision--)
    {
      fraction_part[i] = (int)((fp + PRECISION)*10. + '0');
      if (! DIGIT(fraction_part[i])) /* underflow ? */
      break;
      fp = (fp*10.0) - (double)(long)((fp + PRECISION)*10.);
    }
  fraction_part[i] = '\0';

  if (fract != (char **)0)
    *fract = fraction_part;

  return integral_part;
}
#endif

/* for %d and friends, it puts in holder
 * the representation with the right padding
 */
static void
number(p, d, base)
     struct DATA *p;
     unsigned long d;
     int base;
{
  char *tmp, *t;
  long sd;
  int flags;

  sd = d;   /* signed for ' ' padding in base 10 */
  flags = (*p->pf == 'u' || *p->pf == 'U') ? FL_UNSIGNED : 0;
  if (*p->pf == 'X')
    flags |= FL_HEXUPPER;

  tmp = fmtulong (d, base, intbuf, sizeof(intbuf), flags);
  t = 0;
  if ((p->flags & PF_THOUSANDS))
    {
      GETLOCALEDATA(decpoint, thoussep, grouping);
      if (grouping && (t = groupnum (tmp)))
        tmp = t;
    }

  p->width -= strlen(tmp);
  PAD_RIGHT(p);

  switch (base)
    {
    case 10:
      PUT_PLUS(sd, p, 0);
      PUT_SPACE(sd, p, 0);
      break;
    case 8:
      if (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM)
      PUT_CHAR('0', p);
      break;
    case 16:
      if (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM)
      {
        PUT_CHAR('0', p);
        PUT_CHAR(*p->pf, p);
      }
      break;
    }

  while (*tmp)
    {
      PUT_CHAR(*tmp, p);
      tmp++;
    }

  PAD_LEFT(p);
  FREE (t);
}

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
/*
 * identical to number() but works for `long long'
 */
static void
lnumber(p, d, base)
     struct DATA *p;
     unsigned long long d;
     int base;
{
  char *tmp, *t;
  long long sd;
  int flags;

  sd = d;   /* signed for ' ' padding in base 10 */
  flags = (*p->pf == 'u' || *p->pf == 'U') ? FL_UNSIGNED : 0;
  if (*p->pf == 'X')
    flags |= FL_HEXUPPER;

  tmp = fmtullong (d, base, intbuf, sizeof(intbuf), flags);
  t = 0;
  if ((p->flags & PF_THOUSANDS))
    {
      GETLOCALEDATA(decpoint, thoussep, grouping);
      if (grouping && (t = groupnum (tmp)))
        tmp = t;
    }

  p->width -= strlen(tmp);
  PAD_RIGHT(p);

  switch (base)
    {
    case 10:
      PUT_PLUS(sd, p, 0);
      PUT_SPACE(sd, p, 0);
      break;
    case 8:
      if (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM)
      PUT_CHAR('0', p);
      break;
    case 16:
      if (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM)
      {
        PUT_CHAR('0', p);
        PUT_CHAR(*p->pf, p);
      }
      break;
    }

  while (*tmp)
    {
      PUT_CHAR(*tmp, p);
      tmp++;
    }

  PAD_LEFT(p);
  FREE (t);
}
#endif

static void
pointer(p, d)
     struct DATA *p;
     unsigned long d;
{
  char *tmp;

  tmp = fmtulong(d, 16, intbuf, sizeof(intbuf), 0);
  p->width -= strlen(tmp);
  PAD_RIGHT(p);

  /* prefix '0x' for pointers */
  PUT_CHAR('0', p);
  PUT_CHAR('x', p);

  while (*tmp)
    {
      PUT_CHAR(*tmp, p);
      tmp++;
    }
  PAD_LEFT(p);
}

/* %s strings */
static void
strings(p, tmp)
     struct DATA *p;
     char *tmp;
{
  size_t len;

  len = strlen(tmp);
  if (p->precision != NOT_FOUND) /* the smallest number */
    len = (len < p->precision ? len : p->precision);
  p->width -= len;

  PUT_STRING (tmp, len, p);
}

#if HANDLE_MULTIBYTE
/* %ls wide-character strings */
static void
wstrings(p, tmp)
     struct DATA *p;
     wchar_t *tmp;
{
  size_t len;
  mbstate_t mbs;
  char *os;
  const wchar_t *ws;

  memset (&mbs, '\0', sizeof (mbstate_t));
  ws = (const wchar_t *)tmp;

  os = (char *)NULL;
  if (p->precision != NOT_FOUND)
    {
      os = (char *)xmalloc (p->precision + 1);
      len = wcsrtombs (os, &ws, p->precision, &mbs);
    }
  else
    {
      len = wcsrtombs (NULL, &ws, 0, &mbs);
      if (len != (size_t)-1)
        {
        memset (&mbs, '\0', sizeof (mbstate_t));
        os = (char *)xmalloc (len + 1);
        (void)wcsrtombs (os, &ws, len + 1, &mbs);
        }
    }
  if (len == (size_t)-1)
    {
      /* invalid multibyte sequence; bail now. */
      FREE (os);      
      return;
    }

  p->width -= len;
  PUT_STRING (os, len, p);
  free (os);
}

static void
wchars (p, wc)
     struct DATA *p;
     wint_t wc;
{
  char *lbuf, *l;
  mbstate_t mbs;
  size_t len;

  lbuf = (char *)malloc (MB_CUR_MAX+1);
  if (lbuf == 0)
    return;
  memset (&mbs, '\0', sizeof (mbstate_t));
  len = wcrtomb (lbuf, wc, &mbs);
  if (len == (size_t)-1)
    /* conversion failed; bail now. */
    return;
  p->width -= len;
  l = lbuf;
  PUT_STRING (l, len, p);
  free (lbuf);
}
#endif /* HANDLE_MULTIBYTE */

#ifdef FLOATING_POINT

#ifndef HAVE_ISINF_IN_LIBC
/* Half-assed versions, since we don't want to link with libm. */
static int
isinf(d)
     double d;
{
#ifdef DBL_MAX
  if (d < DBL_MIN)
    return -1;
  else if (d > DBL_MAX)
    return 1;
  else
#endif
    return 0;
}

static int
isnan(d)
     double d;
{
  return 0;
}
#endif

/* Check for [+-]infinity and NaN.  If MODE == 1, we check for Infinity, else
   (mode == 2) we check for NaN.  This does the necessary printing.  Returns
   1 if Inf or Nan, 0 if not. */
static int
chkinfnan(p, d, mode)
     struct DATA *p;
     double d;
     int mode;          /* == 1 for inf, == 2 for nan */
{
  int i;
  char *tmp;
  char *big, *small;

  i = (mode == 1) ? isinf(d) : isnan(d);
  if (i == 0)
    return 0;
  big = (mode == 1) ? "INF" : "NAN";
  small = (mode == 1) ? "inf" : "nan";

  tmp = (*p->pf == 'F' || *p->pf == 'G' || *p->pf == 'E') ? big : small;

  if (i < 0)
    PUT_CHAR('-', p);

  while (*tmp)
    {
      PUT_CHAR (*tmp, p);
      tmp++;
    }

  return 1;
}

/* %f %F %g %G floating point representation */
static void
floating(p, d)
     struct DATA *p;
     double d;
{
  char *tmp, *tmp2, *t;
  int i;

  if (chkinfnan(p, d, 1) || chkinfnan(p, d, 2))
    return; /* already printed nan or inf */

  GETLOCALEDATA(decpoint, thoussep, grouping);
  DEF_PREC(p);
  d = ROUND(d, p);
  tmp = dtoa(d, p->precision, &tmp2);
  t = 0;
  if ((p->flags & PF_THOUSANDS) && grouping && (t = groupnum (tmp)))
    tmp = t;

  /* calculate the padding. 1 for the dot */
  p->width = p->width -
          ((d > 0. && p->justify == RIGHT) ? 1:0) -
          ((p->flags & PF_SPACE) ? 1:0) -
          strlen(tmp) - p->precision - 1;
  PAD_RIGHT(p);  
  PUT_PLUS(d, p, 0.);
  PUT_SPACE(d, p, 0.);

  while (*tmp)
    { /* the integral */
      PUT_CHAR(*tmp, p);
      tmp++;
    }
  FREE (t);

  if (p->precision != 0 || (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM))
    PUT_CHAR(decpoint, p);  /* put the '.' */

  if ((*p->pf == 'g' || *p->pf == 'G') && (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM) == 0)
    /* smash the trailing zeros unless altform */
    for (i = strlen(tmp2) - 1; i >= 0 && tmp2[i] == '0'; i--)
      tmp2[i] = '\0'; 

  for (; *tmp2; tmp2++)
    PUT_CHAR(*tmp2, p); /* the fraction */
  
  PAD_LEFT(p);
} 

/* %e %E %g %G exponent representation */
static void
exponent(p, d)
     struct DATA *p;
     double d;
{
  char *tmp, *tmp2;
  int j, i;

  if (chkinfnan(p, d, 1) || chkinfnan(p, d, 2))
    return; /* already printed nan or inf */

  GETLOCALEDATA(decpoint, thoussep, grouping);
  DEF_PREC(p);
  j = log_10(d);
  d = d / pow_10(j);  /* get the Mantissa */
  d = ROUND(d, p);              
  tmp = dtoa(d, p->precision, &tmp2);

  /* 1 for unit, 1 for the '.', 1 for 'e|E',
   * 1 for '+|-', 2 for 'exp' */
  /* calculate how much padding need */
  p->width = p->width - 
           ((d > 0. && p->justify == RIGHT) ? 1:0) -
           ((p->flags & PF_SPACE) ? 1:0) - p->precision - 6;

  PAD_RIGHT(p);
  PUT_PLUS(d, p, 0.);
  PUT_SPACE(d, p, 0.);

  while (*tmp)
    {
      PUT_CHAR(*tmp, p);
      tmp++;
    }

  if (p->precision != 0 || (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM))
      PUT_CHAR(decpoint, p);  /* the '.' */

  if ((*p->pf == 'g' || *p->pf == 'G') && (p->flags & PF_ALTFORM) == 0)
    /* smash the trailing zeros unless altform */
    for (i = strlen(tmp2) - 1; i >= 0 && tmp2[i] == '0'; i--)
      tmp2[i] = '\0'; 

  for (; *tmp2; tmp2++)
    PUT_CHAR(*tmp2, p); /* the fraction */

  /* the exponent put the 'e|E' */
  if (*p->pf == 'g' || *p->pf == 'e')
    PUT_CHAR('e', p);
  else
    PUT_CHAR('E', p);

  /* the sign of the exp */
  if (j > 0)
    PUT_CHAR('+', p);
  else
    {
      PUT_CHAR('-', p);
      j = -j;
    }

   tmp = itoa(j);
   /* pad out to at least two spaces.  pad with `0' if the exponent is a
      single digit. */
   if (j <= 9)
     PUT_CHAR('0', p);

   /* the exponent */
   while (*tmp)
     {
       PUT_CHAR(*tmp, p);
       tmp++;
     }
   PAD_LEFT(p);
}
#endif

/* Return a new string with the digits in S grouped according to the locale's
   grouping info and thousands separator.  If no grouping should be performed,
   this returns NULL; the caller needs to check for it. */
static char *
groupnum (s)
     char *s;
{
  char *se, *ret, *re, *g;
  int len, slen;

  if (grouping == 0 || *grouping <= 0 || *grouping == CHAR_MAX)
    return ((char *)NULL);

  /* find min grouping to size returned string */
  for (len = *grouping, g = grouping; *g; g++)
      if (*g > 0 && *g < len)
      len = *g;

  slen = strlen (s);
  len = slen / len + 1;
  ret = (char *)xmalloc (slen + len + 1);
  re = ret + slen + len;
  *re = '\0';

  g = grouping;
  se = s + slen;
  len = *g;

  while (se > s)
    {
      *--re = *--se;

      /* handle `-' inserted by numtoa() and the fmtu* family here. */
      if (se > s && se[-1] == '-')
      continue;

      /* begin new group. */
      if (--len == 0 && se > s)
      {
        *--re = thoussep;
        len = *++g;           /* was g++, but that uses first char twice (glibc bug, too) */
        if (*g == '\0')
          len = *--g;         /* use previous grouping */
        else if (*g == CHAR_MAX)
          {
            do
              *--re = *--se;
            while (se > s);
            break;
          }
      }
    }

  if (re > ret)
#ifdef HAVE_MEMMOVE
    memmove (ret, re, strlen (re) + 1);
#else
    strcpy (ret, re);
#endif
   
  return ret;
}

/* initialize the conversion specifiers */
static void
init_conv_flag (p)
     struct DATA *p;
{
  p->flags &= PF_ALLOCBUF;          /* preserve PF_ALLOCBUF flag */
  p->precision = p->width = NOT_FOUND;
  p->justify = NOT_FOUND;
  p->pad = ' ';
}

static void
init_data (p, string, length, format, mode)
     struct DATA *p;
     char *string;
     size_t length;
     const char *format;
     int mode;
{
  p->length = length - 1; /* leave room for '\0' */
  p->holder = p->base = string;
  p->pf = format;
  p->counter = 0;
  p->flags = (mode == PFM_AS) ? PF_ALLOCBUF : 0;
}

static int
#if defined (__STDC__)
vsnprintf_internal(struct DATA *data, char *string, size_t length, const char *format, va_list args)
#else
vsnprintf_internal(data, string, length, format, args)
     struct DATA *data;
     char *string;
     size_t length;
     const char *format;
     va_list args;
#endif
{
  double d; /* temporary holder */
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE
  long double ld; /* for later */
#endif
  unsigned long ul;
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
  unsigned long long ull;
#endif
  int state, i, c, n;
  char *s;
#if HANDLE_MULTIBYTE
  wchar_t *ws;
  wint_t wc;
#endif
  const char *convstart;

  /* Sanity check, the string length must be >= 0.  C99 actually says that
     LENGTH can be zero here, in the case of snprintf/vsnprintf (it's never
     0 in the case of asprintf/vasprintf), and the return value is the number
     of characters that would have been written. */
  if (length < 0)
    return -1;

  if (format == 0)
    return 0;

  /* Reset these for each call because the locale might have changed. */
  decpoint = thoussep = 0;
  grouping = 0;

  for (; c = *(data->pf); data->pf++)
    {
      if (c != '%')
      {
        PUT_CHAR (c, data);
        continue;
      }

      convstart = data->pf;
      init_conv_flag (data); /* initialise format flags */

      state = 1;
      for (state = 1; state && *data->pf; )
      {
        c = *(++data->pf);
            /* fmtend = data->pf */
#if defined (FLOATING_POINT) && defined (HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE)
        if (data->flags & PF_LONGDBL)
          {
            switch (c)
            {
            case 'f': case 'F':
            case 'e': case 'E':
            case 'g': case 'G':
#  ifdef HAVE_PRINTF_A_FORMAT
            case 'a': case 'A':
#  endif
              STAR_ARGS (data);
              ld = GETLDOUBLE (data);
              ldfallback (data, convstart, data->pf, ld);
              goto conv_break;
            }
          }
#endif /* FLOATING_POINT && HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE */

        switch (c)
          {
            /* Parse format flags */
            case '\0': /* a NULL here ? ? bail out */
            *data->holder = '\0';
            return data->counter;
            break;
            case '#':
            data->flags |= PF_ALTFORM;
            continue;
            case '0':
            data->flags |= PF_ZEROPAD;
            data->pad = '0';
            continue;
            case '*':
            if (data->flags & PF_DOT)
              data->flags |= PF_STAR_P;
            else
              data->flags |= PF_STAR_W;
            continue;
            case '-':
            data->flags |= PF_LADJUST;
            data->justify = LEFT;
            continue;
            case ' ':
            if ((data->flags & PF_PLUS) == 0)
              data->flags |= PF_SPACE;
            continue;
            case '+':
            data->flags |= PF_PLUS;
            data->justify = RIGHT;
            continue;
            case '\'':
            data->flags |= PF_THOUSANDS;
            continue;

            case '1': case '2': case '3':
            case '4': case '5': case '6':
            case '7': case '8': case '9':
            n = 0;
            do
              {
                n = n * 10 + TODIGIT(c);
                c = *(++data->pf);
              }
            while (DIGIT(c));
            data->pf--;       /* went too far */
            if (n < 0)
              n = 0;
            if (data->flags & PF_DOT)
              data->precision = n;
            else
              data->width = n;
            continue;

            /* optional precision */
            case '.':
            data->flags |= PF_DOT;
            data->precision = 0;
            continue;

            /* length modifiers */
            case 'h':
            data->flags |= (data->flags & PF_SHORTINT) ? PF_SIGNEDCHAR : PF_SHORTINT;
            continue;
            case 'l':
            data->flags |= (data->flags & PF_LONGINT) ? PF_LONGLONG : PF_LONGINT;
            continue;
            case 'L':
            data->flags |= PF_LONGDBL;
            continue;
            case 'q':
            data->flags |= PF_LONGLONG;
            continue;
            case 'j':
            data->flags |= PF_INTMAX_T;
            SET_SIZE_FLAGS(data, intmax_t);
            continue;
            case 'z':
            data->flags |= PF_SIZE_T;
            SET_SIZE_FLAGS(data, size_t);
            continue;
            case 't':
            data->flags |= PF_PTRDIFF_T;
            SET_SIZE_FLAGS(data, ptrdiff_t);
            continue;
            
            /* Conversion specifiers */
#ifdef FLOATING_POINT
            case 'f':  /* float, double */
            case 'F':
            STAR_ARGS(data);
            d = GETDOUBLE(data);
            floating(data, d);
conv_break:       
            state = 0;
            break;
            case 'g': 
            case 'G':
            STAR_ARGS(data);
            DEF_PREC(data);
            d = GETDOUBLE(data);
            i = log_10(d);
            /*
             * for '%g|%G' ANSI: use f if exponent
             * is in the range or [-4,p] exclusively
             * else use %e|%E
             */
            if (-4 < i && i < data->precision)
              {
                /* reset precision */
                data->precision -= i + 1;
                floating(data, d);
              }
            else
              {
                /* reduce precision by 1 because of leading digit before
                   decimal point in e format. */
                data->precision--;
                exponent(data, d);
              }
            state = 0;
            break;
            case 'e':
            case 'E':  /* Exponent double */
            STAR_ARGS(data);
            d = GETDOUBLE(data);
            exponent(data, d);
            state = 0;
            break;
#  ifdef HAVE_PRINTF_A_FORMAT
            case 'a':
            case 'A':
            STAR_ARGS(data);
            d = GETDOUBLE(data);
            dfallback(data, convstart, data->pf, d);
            state = 0;
            break;
#  endif /* HAVE_PRINTF_A_FORMAT */
#endif /* FLOATING_POINT */
            case 'U':
            data->flags |= PF_LONGINT;
            /* FALLTHROUGH */
            case 'u':
            STAR_ARGS(data);
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGLONG)
              {
                ull = GETARG (unsigned long long);
                lnumber(data, ull, 10);
              }
            else
#endif
              {
                ul = GETUNSIGNED(data);
                number(data, ul, 10);
              }
            state = 0;
            break;
            case 'D':
            data->flags |= PF_LONGINT;
            /* FALLTHROUGH */
            case 'd':  /* decimal */
            case 'i':
            STAR_ARGS(data);
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGLONG)
              {
                ull = GETARG (long long);
                lnumber(data, ull, 10);
              }
            else
#endif
              {
                ul = GETSIGNED(data);
                number(data, ul, 10);
              }
            state = 0;
            break;
            case 'o':  /* octal */
            STAR_ARGS(data);
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGLONG)
              {
                ull = GETARG (unsigned long long);
                lnumber(data, ull, 8);
              }
            else
#endif
              {
                ul = GETUNSIGNED(data);
                number(data, ul, 8);
              }
            state = 0;
            break;
            case 'x': 
            case 'X':  /* hexadecimal */
            STAR_ARGS(data);
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGLONG)
              {
                ull = GETARG (unsigned long long);
                lnumber(data, ull, 16);
              }
            else
#endif
              {
                ul = GETUNSIGNED(data);
                number(data, ul, 16);
              }
            state = 0;
            break;
            case 'p':
            STAR_ARGS(data);
            ul = (unsigned long)GETARG (void *);
            pointer(data, ul);
            state = 0;
            break;
#if HANDLE_MULTIBYTE
            case 'C':
            data->flags |= PF_LONGINT;
            /* FALLTHROUGH */
#endif
            case 'c': /* character */
            STAR_ARGS(data);
#if HANDLE_MULTIBYTE
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGINT)
              {
                wc = GETARG (wint_t);
                wchars (data, wc);
              }
            else
#endif
              {         
                ul = GETARG (int);
                PUT_CHAR(ul, data);
              }
            state = 0;
            break;
#if HANDLE_MULTIBYTE
            case 'S':
            data->flags |= PF_LONGINT;
            /* FALLTHROUGH */
#endif
            case 's':  /* string */
            STAR_ARGS(data);
#if HANDLE_MULTIBYTE
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGINT)
              {
                ws = GETARG (wchar_t *);
                wstrings (data, ws);
              }
            else
#endif
              {
                s = GETARG (char *);
                strings(data, s);
              }
            state = 0;
            break;
            case 'n':
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGLONG)
              *(GETARG (long long *)) = data->counter;
            else
#endif
            if (data->flags & PF_LONGINT)
              *(GETARG (long *)) = data->counter;
            else if (data->flags & PF_SHORTINT)
              *(GETARG (short *)) = data->counter;
            else
              *(GETARG (int *)) = data->counter;
            state = 0;
            break;
            case '%':  /* nothing just % */
            PUT_CHAR('%', data);
            state = 0;
            break;
            default:
            /* is this an error ? maybe bail out */
            state = 0;
            break;
      } /* end switch */
      } /* end of `%' for loop */
    } /* end of format string for loop */

  if (data->length >= 0)
    *data->holder = '\0'; /* the end ye ! */

  return data->counter;
}

#if defined (FLOATING_POINT) && defined (HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE)
/*
 * Printing floating point numbers accurately is an art.  I'm not good
 * at it.  Fall back to sprintf for long double formats.
 */
static void
ldfallback (data, fs, fe, ld)
     struct DATA *data;
     const char *fs, *fe;
     long double ld;
{
  register char *x;
  char fmtbuf[FALLBACK_FMTSIZE], *obuf;
  int fl;

  obuf = (char *)xmalloc(LFALLBACK_BASE + (data->precision < 6 ? 6 : data->precision) + 2);
  fl = fe - fs + 1;
  strncpy (fmtbuf, fs, fl);
  fmtbuf[fl] = '\0';
  sprintf (obuf, fmtbuf, ld);
  for (x = obuf; *x; x++)
    PUT_CHAR (*x, data);    
  xfree (obuf);
}
#endif /* FLOATING_POINT && HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE */

#ifdef FLOATING_POINT
/* Used for %a, %A if the libc printf supports them. */
static void
dfallback (data, fs, fe, d)
     struct DATA *data;
     const char *fs, *fe;
     double d;
{
  register char *x;
  char fmtbuf[FALLBACK_FMTSIZE], obuf[FALLBACK_BASE];
  int fl;

  fl = fe - fs + 1;
  strncpy (fmtbuf, fs, fl);
  fmtbuf[fl] = '\0';
  sprintf (obuf, fmtbuf, d);
  for (x = obuf; *x; x++)
    PUT_CHAR (*x, data);    
}
#endif /* FLOATING_POINT */

#ifndef HAVE_SNPRINTF

int
#if defined (__STDC__)
vsnprintf(char *string, size_t length, const char *format, va_list args)
#else
vsnprintf(string, length, format, args)
     char *string;
     size_t length;
     const char *format;
     va_list args;
#endif
{
  struct DATA data;

  if (string == 0 && length != 0)
    return 0;
  init_data (&data, string, length, format, PFM_SN);
  return (vsnprintf_internal(&data, string, length, format, args));
}

int
#if defined(PREFER_STDARG)
snprintf(char *string, size_t length, const char * format, ...)
#else
snprintf(string, length, format, va_alist)
     char *string;
     size_t length;
     const char *format;
     va_dcl
#endif
{
  struct DATA data;
  int rval;
  va_list args;

  SH_VA_START(args, format);

  if (string == 0 && length != 0)
    return 0;
  init_data (&data, string, length, format, PFM_SN);
  rval = vsnprintf_internal (&data, string, length, format, args);

  va_end(args);

  return rval;
}

#endif /* HAVE_SNPRINTF */

#ifndef HAVE_ASPRINTF

int
#if defined (__STDC__)
vasprintf(char **stringp, const char *format, va_list args)
#else
vasprintf(stringp, format, args)
     char **stringp;
     const char *format;
     va_list args;
#endif
{
  struct DATA data;
  char *string;
  int r;

  string = (char *)xmalloc(ASBUFSIZE);
  init_data (&data, string, ASBUFSIZE, format, PFM_AS);
  r = vsnprintf_internal(&data, string, ASBUFSIZE, format, args);
  *stringp = data.base;       /* not string in case reallocated */
  return r;
}

int
#if defined(PREFER_STDARG)
asprintf(char **stringp, const char * format, ...)
#else
asprintf(stringp, format, va_alist)
     char **stringp;
     const char *format;
     va_dcl
#endif
{
  int rval;
  va_list args;

  SH_VA_START(args, format);

  rval = vasprintf (stringp, format, args);

  va_end(args);

  return rval;
}

#endif

#endif

#ifdef DRIVER

static void
memory_error_and_abort ()
{
  write (2, "out of virtual memory\n", 22);
  abort ();
}

static void *
xmalloc(bytes)
     size_t bytes;
{
  void *ret;

  ret = malloc(bytes);
  if (ret == 0)
    memory_error_and_abort ();
  return ret;
}

static void *
xrealloc (pointer, bytes)
     void *pointer;
     size_t bytes;
{
  void *ret;

  ret = pointer ? realloc(pointer, bytes) : malloc(bytes);
  if (ret == 0)
    memory_error_and_abort ();
  return ret;
}

static void
xfree(x)
     void *x;
{
  if (x)
    free (x);
}

/* set of small tests for snprintf() */
main()
{
  char holder[100];
  char *h;
  int i, si, ai;

#ifdef HAVE_LOCALE_H
  setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
#endif

#if 1
  si = snprintf((char *)NULL, 0, "abcde\n");
  printf("snprintf returns %d with NULL first argument and size of 0\n", si);
  si = snprintf(holder, 0, "abcde\n");
  printf("snprintf returns %d with non-NULL first argument and size of 0\n", si);
  si = snprintf((char *)NULL, 16, "abcde\n");
  printf("snprintf returns %d with NULL first argument and non-zero size\n", si);
  
/*
  printf("Suite of test for snprintf:\n");
  printf("a_format\n");
  printf("printf() format\n");
  printf("snprintf() format\n\n");
*/
/* Checking the field widths */

  printf("/%%ld %%ld/, 336, 336\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%ld %ld/\n", 336, 336);
  asprintf(&h, "/%ld %ld/\n", 336, 336);
  printf("/%ld %ld/\n", 336, 336);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%d/, 336\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%d/\n", 336);
  asprintf(&h, "/%d/\n", 336);
  printf("/%d/\n", 336);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%2d/, 336\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%2d/\n", 336);
  asprintf(&h, "/%2d/\n", 336);
  printf("/%2d/\n", 336);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%10d/, 336\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%10d/\n", 336);
  asprintf(&h, "/%10d/\n", 336);
  printf("/%10d/\n", 336);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%-10d/, 336\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%-10d/\n", 336);
  asprintf(&h, "/%-10d/\n", 336);
  printf("/%-10d/\n", 336);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);


/* floating points */

  printf("/%%f/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%f/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%e/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%e/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%e/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%e/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%4.2f/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%4.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%4.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%4.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%3.1f/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%3.1f/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%3.1f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%3.1f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%10.3f/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%10.3f/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%10.3f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%10.3f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%10.3e/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%10.3e/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%10.3e/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%10.3e/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%+4.2f/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%+4.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%+4.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%+4.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%010.2f/, 1234.56\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%010.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  asprintf(&h, "/%010.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("/%010.2f/\n", 1234.56);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

#define BLURB "Outstanding acting !"
/* strings precisions */

  printf("/%%2s/, \"%s\"\n", BLURB);
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%2s/\n", BLURB);
  asprintf(&h, "/%2s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("/%2s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%22s/ %s\n", BLURB);
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%22s/\n", BLURB);
  asprintf(&h, "/%22s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("/%22s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%22.5s/ %s\n", BLURB);
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%22.5s/\n", BLURB);
  asprintf(&h, "/%22.5s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("/%22.5s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%-22.5s/ %s\n", BLURB);
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%-22.5s/\n", BLURB);
  asprintf(&h, "/%-22.5s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("/%-22.5s/\n", BLURB);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

/* see some flags */

  printf("%%x %%X %%#x, 31, 31, 31\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "%x %X %#x\n", 31, 31, 31);
  asprintf(&h, "%x %X %#x\n", 31, 31, 31);
  printf("%x %X %#x\n", 31, 31, 31);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("**%%d**%% d**%% d**, 42, 42, -42\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "**%d**% d**% d**\n", 42, 42, -42);
  asprintf(&h, "**%d**% d**% d**\n", 42, 42, -42);
  printf("**%d**% d**% d**\n", 42, 42, -42);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

/* other flags */

  printf("/%%g/, 31.4\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%g/\n", 31.4);
  asprintf(&h, "/%g/\n", 31.4);
  printf("/%g/\n", 31.4);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%.6g/, 31.4\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%.6g/\n", 31.4);
  asprintf(&h, "/%.6g/\n", 31.4);
  printf("/%.6g/\n", 31.4);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%.1G/, 31.4\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%.1G/\n", 31.4);
  asprintf(&h, "/%.1G/\n", 31.4);
  printf("/%.1G/\n", 31.4);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%.1G/, 3100000000.4\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%.1G/\n", 3100000000.4);  
  asprintf(&h, "/%.1G/\n", 3100000000.4);  
  printf("/%.1G/\n", 3100000000.4); 
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("abc%%n\n");
  printf("abc%n", &i); printf("%d\n", i);
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "abc%n", &i);
  printf("%s", holder); printf("%d\n\n", i);
  asprintf(&h, "abc%n", &i);
  printf("%s", h); printf("%d\n\n", i);
  
  printf("%%*.*s --> 10.10\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "%*.*s\n", 10, 10, BLURB);
  asprintf(&h, "%*.*s\n", 10, 10, BLURB);
  printf("%*.*s\n", 10, 10, BLURB);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("%%%%%%%%\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "%%%%\n");
  asprintf(&h, "%%%%\n");
  printf("%%%%\n");
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

#define BIG "Hello this is a too big string for the buffer"
/*  printf("A buffer to small of 10, trying to put this:\n");*/
  printf("<%%>, %s\n", BIG); 
  i = snprintf(holder, 10, "%s\n", BIG);
  i = asprintf(&h, "%s", BIG);
  printf("<%s>\n", BIG);
  printf("<%s>\n", holder);
  printf("<%s>\n\n", h);

  printf ("<%%p> vsnprintf\n");
  i = snprintf(holder, 100, "%p", vsnprintf);
  i = asprintf(&h, "%p", vsnprintf);
  printf("<%p>\n", vsnprintf);
  printf("<%s>\n", holder);  
  printf("<%s>\n\n", h);

  printf ("<%%lu> LONG_MAX+1\n");
  i = snprintf(holder, 100, "%lu", (unsigned long)(LONG_MAX)+1);
  i = asprintf(&h, "%lu", (unsigned long)(LONG_MAX)+1);
  printf("<%lu>\n", (unsigned long)(LONG_MAX)+1);
  printf("<%s>\n", holder);
  printf("<%s>\n\n", h);

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
  printf ("<%%llu> LLONG_MAX+1\n");
  i = snprintf(holder, 100, "%llu", (unsigned long long)(LLONG_MAX)+1);
  i = asprintf(&h, "%llu", (unsigned long long)(LLONG_MAX)+1);
  printf("<%llu>\n", (unsigned long long)(LLONG_MAX)+1);
  printf("<%s>\n", holder);
  printf("<%s>\n\n", h);
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_DOUBLE
  printf ("<%%6.2LE> 42.42\n");
  i = snprintf(holder, 100, "%6.2LE", (long double)42.42);
  i = asprintf(&h, "%6.2LE", (long double)42.42);
  printf ("<%6.2LE>\n", (long double)42.42);
  printf ("<%s>\n", holder);
  printf ("<%s>\n\n", h);
#endif

#ifdef HAVE_PRINTF_A_FORMAT
  printf ("<%%6.2A> 42.42\n");
  i = snprintf(holder, 100, "%6.2A", 42.42);
  i = asprintf(&h, "%6.2A", 42.42);
  printf ("<%6.2A>\n", 42.42);
  printf ("<%s>\n", holder);
  printf ("<%s>\n\n", h);

  printf ("<%%6.2LA> 42.42\n");
  i = snprintf(holder, 100, "%6.2LA", (long double)42.42);
  i = asprintf(&h, "%6.2LA", (long double)42.42);
  printf ("<%6.2LA>\n", (long double)42.42);
  printf ("<%s>\n", holder);
  printf ("<%s>\n\n", h);
#endif

  printf ("<%%.10240f> DBL_MAX\n");
  si = snprintf(holder, 100, "%.10240f", DBL_MAX);
  ai = asprintf(&h, "%.10240f", DBL_MAX);
  printf ("<%.10240f>\n", DBL_MAX);
  printf ("<%d> <%s>\n", si, holder);
  printf ("<%d> <%s>\n\n", ai, h);

  printf ("<%%.10240Lf> LDBL_MAX\n");
  si = snprintf(holder, 100, "%.10240Lf", (long double)LDBL_MAX);
  ai = asprintf(&h, "%.10240Lf", (long double)LDBL_MAX);
  printf ("<%.10240Lf>\n", (long double)LDBL_MAX);
  printf ("<%d> <%s>\n", si, holder);
  printf ("<%d> <%s>\n\n", ai, h);

  /* huh? */
  printf("/%%g/, 421.2345\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%g/\n", 421.2345);
  asprintf(&h, "/%g/\n", 421.2345);
  printf("/%g/\n", 421.2345);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%g/, 4214.2345\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%g/\n", 4214.2345);
  asprintf(&h, "/%g/\n", 4214.2345);
  printf("/%g/\n", 4214.2345);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%.5g/, 4214.2345\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%.5g/\n", 4214.2345);
  asprintf(&h, "/%.5g/\n", 4214.2345);
  printf("/%.5g/\n", 4214.2345);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%.4g/, 4214.2345\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%.4g/\n", 4214.2345);
  asprintf(&h, "/%.4g/\n", 4214.2345);
  printf("/%.4g/\n", 4214.2345);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%'ld %%'ld/, 12345, 1234567\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'ld %'ld/\n", 12345, 1234567);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'ld %'ld/\n", 12345, 1234567);
  printf("/%'ld %'ld/\n", 12345, 1234567);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%'ld %%'ld/, 336, 3336\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'ld %'ld/\n", 336, 3336);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'ld %'ld/\n", 336, 3336);
  printf("/%'ld %'ld/\n", 336, 3336);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%'ld %%'ld/, -42786, -142786\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'ld %'ld/\n", -42786, -142786);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'ld %'ld/\n", -42786, -142786);
  printf("/%'ld %'ld/\n", -42786, -142786);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%'f %%'f/, 421.2345, 421234.56789\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'f %'f/\n", 421.2345, 421234.56789);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'f %'f/\n", 421.2345, 421234.56789);
  printf("/%'f %'f/\n", 421.2345, 421234.56789);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%'f %%'f/, -421.2345, -421234.56789\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'f %'f/\n", -421.2345, -421234.56789);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'f %'f/\n", -421.2345, -421234.56789);
  printf("/%'f %'f/\n", -421.2345, -421234.56789);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%'g %%'g/, 421.2345, 421234.56789\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'g %'g/\n", 421.2345, 421234.56789);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'g %'g/\n", 421.2345, 421234.56789);
  printf("/%'g %'g/\n", 421.2345, 421234.56789);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  printf("/%%'g %%'g/, -421.2345, -421234.56789\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'g %'g/\n", -421.2345, -421234.56789);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'g %'g/\n", -421.2345, -421234.56789);
  printf("/%'g %'g/\n", -421.2345, -421234.56789);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);
#endif

  printf("/%%'g/, 4213455.8392\n");
  snprintf(holder, sizeof holder, "/%'g/\n", 4213455.8392);
  asprintf(&h, "/%'g/\n", 4213455.8392);
  printf("/%'g/\n", 4213455.8392);
  printf("%s", holder);
  printf("%s\n", h);

  exit (0);
}
#endif

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